Author: Akash Mishra

MIS development

Following are the pitfalls of the MIS development:

1. Fundamental weaknesses of MIS development

Following are the fundamental weakness of the MIS development:

(i) No management system to build upon: The MIS must be built on top of a management system that includes the organizational arrangements, the structure and procedures for adequate planning and control, the clear establishment of objectives and all the other manifestations of good organization and management. The lack managerial and operational application is serious because it implies that the process not being performed well, if we can say that the information is the raw material of decision making, and if information is not generated, disseminated and used for management, then no system-manual or computer is going to solve the problem.

(ii) What business are we in ?: Not having the crispy stated mission and purpose for he company is a common weakness. Since, if it is not terrible clear what business we are in, each major challenge the company must face is a completely new challenge and must be analyzed from the ground up. If there was a mission statement. Some of these problem could be dealt with routinely as opposed to their being major crises.

(iii) Company objectives: Written objective are also often missing in the company. A firm without objectives is much like a company without a statement of mission and purpose, it is a ship without rudder. Without the business objectives, the chances of the MIS satisfying management needs are slight.

(iv) Managerial participation: MIS development has been viewed as the responsibility of management. This includes both top-level management and operating line management. The reasonable conclusion that manager must reach is that MIS is too to be left to the computer technician.

(v) Organisation of the MIS functions: Another significant cause of computer failure is the lack of proper organization of the EDP and MIS. The exact location in the organization and the authority granted to the MIS manager is of, course a function of the type business the firm is in and how important the information the resource is to its operation.

(vi) Reliance on consultant of manufacturer: Some computer manufacturer and some consultant will try to sell the system one that is designed and debugged and ready to push the button or turn on the key. Consultant and the manufacturer is concerned more with the machine than with the management solutions. Before buying the a solution from a consultant or manufacturer, be sure that it is the whole solution, that you understand it thoroughly, and that you understand you legal resources when things do not work the way your expected.

(vii) Communication gap: It is unlikely that for the foreseeable future the computer technician will be able to speak the language of management, and managers for the most part are not prepared to speak the language of the computer. The result is a communication gap that sometimes causes a design standoff.

(vii) The people involved: There is no substitute for competence. Good performers of people will worth the price.

2. Soft spots in planning-

MIS respose to the business plans: The purpose of Mis group is to support line management in the company main business. As business plans are made and modified, the corresponding MIS plans must be made and changed. Each MIS plan must be a proper response to a business plan.

(ii) A system view: A master plan: Another cause of computer failure is the lack of a master plan to which hardware development and individual MIS design can be related. The reasons for MIS planning are the same as for planning in general. A system.

(iii) Setting project and system objectives: Setting objectives for projects and systems is not itself a planning activity. However, not meaningful plans can made until these objectives have at least been roughed in. These two activities are co-requisite.

(iv) Facing constraints: Freedom from constraints on financial definition, system performance, system cost, development schedule will leads to enormous MIS problems. It is essential that both managers and technician recognize the reality of those constraints and plan accordingly.

(v) Plan to sale the MIS: Most system designers admit to the unpleasant reality that the toughest part of the designing and implementation an MIS is gaining acceptance of the user for whom the system is designed. So the system should be designed in the manner that it can easily sale or accepted by the users.

(vi) Detail planning: It is only method that permits one successful MIS project to follow another. All veteran MIS development managers know that and plan in detail for every phase of the project.

3. Design problems-

(i) Consider alternatives designs: This is essential for the manager to require the key designer to lay out the several alternative designs and explain the positive and negative features of each. Then he can select one.

(ii) Beware the user interface: It is a technical problem. The user interface should be according to the user. The user should be comfortable with the design or interface of the system.

(iii) The real world the acid test: Business organizations are not research institutes. The MIS is being implemented to support the firms’ main line of business, not to extend the state of art in MIS design.

(iv) If it moves to automate it: Some things could be automated but not all. Like the designer can easily design the computerized system for the visitor. But people want and expect human interaction to at least immediately available when they enter the lobby of place of business.

(v) The computer obsession: Computer should not be obsession in system. It is a tools and used as a tools only.

(vi) Documentation: Documentation should include: All plans, project and system objective, specifications of functions and performance, user interface specification, user instruction and referençe manuals and maintenance guideline. These items are necessary to manage and use MIS over time. Not documenting these things in detail is a guarantee of failure in some part of the operation of MIS.

4. Implementation problems-

(i) Test it and test it again: The most common error made with regards to resting is not planning to do enough of it. A good rule of thumb to use in project estimating and planning is 1/3 planning and design, 1/3 implementation, 1/3 testing.
For an MIS project of any reasonable size, this figure for testing is by no means too much. Testing must be done at the fictional level, the component level, and the system level.

(ii) Controlling the MIS project: Although controlling is one of the four basic management functions, it remains one of the preeminent cause of MIS development project failure.

For more details related to business development

Business Planning Process/Preparation of Business Plan

A business plan is a blueprint of step by step process that would be followed to convert the business idea into a successful business venture. The business planning process is explained as below:

Business Planning Process/Preparation of Business Plan:

1. Idea Generation: This is the first step in the business planning process. This step differentiates an entrepreneur from the usual business. An entrepreneur may come up with a new business idea or may bring in value addition to existing products in the market. Sources of the new idea for entrepreneurs are:
(a) Consumers/customers
(b) Existing companies
(c) Distribution channels.
(d) Government
(e) Research and Development

2. Environmental scanning : Once the entrepreneur is through the idea generation stage, next entrepreneur is required to conduct environmental scanning which includes analyzing the internal and external environment that affects business idea.

Internal Environmental Factors: These are also known as controllable factors. These factors provides the basic purpose of an enterprise’s existence and operations. It includes the value system, mission and vision of an organization. The availability of machines, human resources, raw material, etc. are already studied in detail.

External Environmental Factors : These are also known as uncontrollable factors. These are further classified into two segments:

Micro external environmental factors : These includes the following factors which affect on enterprise such as:
(i) Suppliers (ii) Customers (iii) Competitors (v) Employees (vi) Shareholders
(b) Macro external environmental factors: These include the following:
(i) Political environment (ii) Legal environment (iii) Economic Environs
(v) Technological environment (vi) Cultural environment (vii) Ethical environs

3. Feasibility analysis : It refers to conducting detailed analysis in relation to every aspect relevant to business and determining credibility of business. It includes analysis/appraisal of the following:

(a) Market analysis : It is conducted to estimate the demand and market share for proposed product and service in future. Demand and market analysis is based on factors like consumption pattern, availability of substitute goods and services, etc.

(b) Technical and operational analysis : This is to assess operational ability of proposed business enterprise. Technical and operational analysis collects data on following parameters:
(i) Material parameters
(ii) Material requirement planning
(iii) Plant location
(iv) Plant capacity
(v) Machinery and Equipment

(c) Financial analysis : It includes the cost of project and cost of production which includes the recurring and non-recurring expenses.

(d) Economic analysis: It essentially involves the compilation of demands for domestic and export markets, most appropriate installed capacity requirements, etc.

(e) Management analysis: The new entrepreneur manager entering the small scale sector should devote his full attention to the new venture.

4. Selection of idea: The next step is to select an idea on the basis of above study. The following factors should be considered for selecting the suitable. Project to produce certain product or provide any service:
(i) If it is an innovative idea?
(ii) Whether competition in the area is less?

(iii) Whether raw material is easily available?                                                         (iv) Whether infrastructure facilities are available?
(v) Whether Government policy encourages production of the product ?

5. Project report preparation: The entrepreneur has to put his ideas and other information after deciding upon the product and the organization. Project report is a written document that describes step by step strategies involved in starting and running business. The content of project report are discussed in ‘project report preparation ‘chapter’.

6. Evaluation, control and review: As company operates in dynamic environment, company has to monitor and review strategies and policies to stay in line with competition existing in market.

Business Planning Process/Preparation of Business Plan click here

USA handling of Covid 19

The ongoing pandemic was first reported in the United States in the month of January 2020 and the first death in February 2020. Despite being the best available medical services in the world United States it spread to more than 50 states and by the end of May United States was with most confirmed active and death cases, per million death rate was also at highest at 361 per million in the world.

Initially, US response was slow to this pandemic, President Trump was of the view that whatever happening was due to foreign nationals so the entry of foreign nationals restricted but US nationals were allowed. As Health Emergency declared on January 31, the month of February gone in preparing healthcare system and focusing on tests was initially a bit lackluster because government developed kits were defective and testing capacity was much less than required as less than 10000 people tested by 2nd week of March. Since cases were rising fast Trump administration declared a national emergency on March 13. Testing was relaxed so that anyone with doctor’s prescription could be tested and industries were instructed to produce PPE and testing kits in large numbers as Federal health inspectors found a shortage in various hospitals. Gradually a number of testing per day touched 250,000 per day but it was still not enough to seize the outbreak.

Since this disease was highly infectious, the Centre for disease control and USA handling of COVID 19 prevention warned that infection may lead to an overload of patients and higher death numbers. As national em0ergency was already in place Trump administration advised people not to gather in large numbers and Stay home, Schools were also closed. In America, people are from all across the world so hatred against foreign national especially from Asia and violence of racist nature also reported as in some population like black and Latino higher number of cases found. With more than 2 million cases however, the graph seems to be flattening with two states New York and New Jersey showing signs of recovery, I hope to see the trend continue further.

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other website information restated topic click here USA handling of COVID 19.


Elements of a Simple Gas Turbine Plants

Elements of a Simple Gas Turbine Plants: A simple gas turbine plant
is shown in Fig. It consists of compressor combustion and turbine. When the units run the atmospheric air is drawn into the compressor, raised to static pressure several times that of the atmosphere. The compressed air then flows to the combustion chamber, where the fuel is injected. The produces of combustion, comprising a mixture of gases at high temperature and pressure, are passed through the turbine where they expand and develop motive force for turning the turbine rotor. After expansion, the gases leave the turbine at atmospheric pressure.

The temperature of the products of combustion is nearly 1000° to 1500°F, The temperature of the exhaust gases is in the range of 900° to 1100°F. The compressor is mounted on the same shaft as that of the turbine. The major portion of the work developed in the turbine is used to drive the compressor and the remainder is available as net power output.

Elements of a Simple Gas Turbine Plants


Turbine drives the compressor and the load. Both impulse and
reaction turbines can be used in gas turbine plants. As compared to steam turbines gas turbines have tew stages because they operate on smaller pressure drops.

Axial flow type turbines are commonly used. The various requirements of
turbines are as follows:
(i) Light Weight
(i) High Efficiency
(iii) Reliability in operation
(iv) Long working life.

Combustion Chamber :

In the combustion chamber, combustion of fuel takes place. The combustion process taking place inside the combution chamber is quite important because it is in this process that energy, which is later converted into work by the turbine, is supplied. Therefore, the combustion products and air so that complete combustion and uniform temperature distribution in the combustion gases may be achieved.

Combustion should take place at high efficiency, because losses incurred in the combustion process have a direct effect on the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine cycle. Further the pressure losses in the combustion chamber should provide sufficient volume and length for complete combustion of the fuel.

Initially the temperature developed in combustion chamber is too high. The
difficulty is avoided by adding a satisfactory amount of air to maintain stable combustion conditions and then the products of combustion are cooled to a temperature suitable for use in gas secondary the combustion chamber. In combustion chamber used for aircraft engines a large quantity of air is used to keep the temperature of combustion chamber to about 650°C. The air fuel ratio may be of the order of 60 :1 in this case

The requirements of a combustion chamber are as follows:

(i) Low-pressure loss
(ii) High combustion efficiency
(iii) Good flame stability
(iv) Low weight
(v) Through mixing of cold air and hot products of combustion to generate
uniform temperature.
(vi) Reliability
(vi) Low carbon deposit in the turbine, and combustion chamber.

Compressor :

The various compressors used are the reciprocating compressor, centrifugal compressors and axial flow compressor. The reciprocating compressors are not preferred due to the friction in sliding parts, more weight, less speed and inability to handle large volumes of air. For a gas turbine power plant of high output and efficiency generally pressure ratios of 10: 1 or more is used. It is observed that when a single compressor with a pressure ratio not more than 4:1 is required the centrifugal compressor is the most suitable.

It is quite rugged in construction, can operate more efficiently over a wide range of mass rate of flow of air than a comparable axial flow compressor. Centrifugal compressor is mainly used in super chargers and in jet aircraft plants, where lower pressure ratios and small volumes of
air is needed. For higher pressure ratios multi-stage centrifugal compressor does not prove to be as useful as an equipment axial flow compressor. Therefore, when high pressure ratios are needed, axial compressor is advantageous and is always used for industrial gas turbine installations. Further is desirable that more than one compressor should be used when the pressure ratio exceeds ratio 6:1. Although the axial flow compressor is heavier than the centrifugal compressor but it has higher efficiency than the centrifugal compressor. It is important that air entering the compressor should be free from best.

Therefore, air should be passed through a filters are not needed in the closed cycle system. Elements of a Simple Gas Turbine Plants

Covid testing method and Capacity

Covid 19 testing method and Capacity

Covid Testing method and Capacity

Covid testing method and Capacity

It’s going to be four months when WHO confirmed human to human transmission by Covid19 and now we have more than 8 million cases worldwide with this virus and it is still growing. Any vaccine possibility is not before end of this year. So at present what authorities should do is just increasing the Covid testing method and Capacity. In India too testing capacity has been increased to 3lakh daily considering the population mass and density. But good thing is that like mortality the infected cases is also very low like if we compare it with US their positive case is around 10% or more while in India it is just over 3%.

Worldwide there are mainly two testing methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction or PCR and Rapid antibody or Serological test. Both test follows different approach, while in first PCR test nasal and throat swab is taken the second Rapid test blood as sample. The PCR test has been recommended by ICMR as gold standard frontline test which is more accurate and reliable but it is advisable for testing in large number because it is labor intensive, time taking and expensive as it involves RNA extracting by machine and expert technician. Since the process is lengthy each stage should be done carefully otherwise it may give faulty result. One PCR test is charged Rs4500 and result will be available after 4hours.Rapid antibody test however is less expensive can be administered on site and fast but it is more effective in containment areas because if someone gets infected with the virus, body develops antibody to fight with it. This test explores immunoglobulin M and G.The ICMR has laid out strategy to use antibody kits.

To increase testing capacity government has authorized private players also to conduct these tests and after court’s order to reduce testing charge government is exploring possibility for price reduction and curb profiteering by private parties. For more related covid 19 vaccine click on it.

accorting to testing wiki click here.

type of reactors

Boiling Water (B.W.R.), Pressurized Water (P.W.R.) and Fast Breeder Reactor (F.B.R.)

Boiling Water Reactor (B.W.R.):

Fig. shows nuclear power plant using B.W.R. In this reactors enriched uranium (enriched uranium contains more fissionable isotope U235 then the naturally occurring percentage 0.7%) is used as nuclear fuel and water is used as coolant. Water enters the reactors at the bottom. It takes up the heat generated due to the fission of fuel and gets converted into steam. Steam leaves the reactor at the top and flows into the turbine. Water also serves as moderator. India’s first nuclear power plant at Tarapur has two reactors (each of 200 MW capacity) of boiling water reactor type.

Boiling Water Reactor (B.W.R.)

Pressurized Water Reactors (P.W.R.)

A P.W.R. nuclear plant is shown in Fig. It uses enriched U as fuel. Water is used as coolant and moderator. Water passes through the reactor core and takes up the heat liberated due to nuclear fission of the fuel. In order that water may not boil (due to its low boiling point 212 F at atmospheric conditions) and remain in liquid state it is kept under a pressure of about 1200 р.s..g. by the pressurizer. This enables water to take up more heat from the reactors. Form the pressurizer water flows to the steam generator where it passes on its heat to the feed water which in turn gets converted into steam.

Pressurized Water Reactor (P.W.R.)

Fast Breeder Reactors (F.B.R.)

Fig. shows a fast breeder reactor system In this reactors, the core containing U235 is surrounded by a blanket (a layer of fertile material placed outside the core) or fertile material U238. In this reactors no moderator is used. The fast-moving neutrons liberated due to fission of U235 are absorbed by U238 which gets converted into fissionable material Pu239 which is capable of sustaining chain reaction. Thus this reactor is important because it breads fissionable material from fertile material U238 available in large quantities. Like sodium graphite nuclear reactors this reactor also uses two liquid metal circulated through the tubes of intermediate heat exchange transfers its heat to
secondary coolant sodium-potassium alloy. The secondary coolant while flowing through the tubes of steam generator transfer its heat to feed water. Fast breeder reactors are better than conventional reactor both from the point of view of safety and thermal efficiency. For India which already is fast advancing towards self-reliance in the field of nuclear power technology, the fast breeder reactor becomes inescapable in view of the massive reserves of thorium and the
finite limits of its uranium resources. The research and development efforts in the fast breeder reactors technology will have to be stepped up considerably if nuclear power generation is to make any impact on the country’s total energy needs in the not too distant future.

Coolants for Fast Breeder Reactors:
The commonly used coolants for fast breeder reactors are as follows:
(i) Liquid metal (Na or NaK)
(ii) Helium (He)
(iii) Carbon dioxide
Sodium has the following advantages
(i) It has very low absorption cross-sectional area.
(ii) It possesses good heat transfer properties at high temperature and low pressure.
(iii) It does not react on any of the structural materials used in primary circuits.

Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

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Covid 19 Vaccine race : Close or Far

Covid 19 Vaccine race:Close or Far

Covid 19 Vaccine

Half of this is year is going to be over now,no one would have thought that we will be facing such devastation just because of an invisible enemy called Covid 19. As per current figure by WHO, the total number of confirmed cases hovering around 8 million out of which 4 million have already died. But the numbers are not going down soon as researchers are still studying and virus is mutating frequently. So at this moment it is imperative that people follow social distancing norms and government guidelines. Scientists all over the world are busy finding vaccine to curb this pandemic. So far as Covid 19 Vaccine research is concerned, developed countries should take the lead as they have required medical advancement to take these researches to its logical conclusion, also because they are among the most affected.

Current time

At present more than 100 vaccines are under phase II trial and countries like France, Britain, US, Germany and Nether-land have already placed orders for millions of Vaccine. Few of the front runners in this race for vaccine are Imperial college London, Moderna Inc from US, Cure Vac of Germany and Oxford AstraZeneca of UK. The Imperial college has already tested its vaccine on animals and probably this week they will start immunizing 300 volunteers and in next phase they will immunize 6000 people in October. If everything goes fine Britain hopes to have this vaccine for its citizens by end of this year. Moderna of US is also going for final trial in next month with 30000 people and Vaccine might come by November. Similarly Oxford AstaZeneca will end its Phase I trial soon and start phase III trials on humans, they expect to get results of the clinical trials by September and hoping to deliver Covid 19 Vaccine by October. They have already signed a deal of 400 Covid 19 Vaccine for US and 100 Vaccine for UK if human trial goes successful.Though Robin Shattock of Imperial college has cautioned that early vaccines may come with some limitations. For more detail Click here.

Covid 19 Vaccine race : Close or Far

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Degree of freedom of system

Degree of freedom of system and explain it with the helping of some examples

Degree of Freedom: A system is said to be n-degrees of freedom system if it needs n independent coordinates to specify compectely the configuration of the system at any instant. A mass supported by a spring and constrained to move in one direction without rotation is a single degree of freedom system. The same is true for a simple pendulum oscillating in one plane. A
crank-slider mechanism is also a single degree freedom system since only the crank angle is sufficient to define the system completely. These vibratory systems are illustrated in Fig. (a).

Degree of freedom
two degree of freedom

On the other hand a spring-supported rigid mass which can move in the direction of spring and can also have angular motion in one plane has two degrees of freedom. A two-mass, two
spring system constrain direction without rotation has also two degrees of freedom [see Fig. (b)] A body in space has six degrees of freedom, three transitional and three rotational. A flexible
beam between two supports has a infinite number of degrees of freedom. These system are shown in fig.

infinite number of degrees of freedom